Tag: Ruby

Collecting Lists In a Ruby Hash and the ‘<<=' operator

The other day, I needed to quickly analyse a data set that came in form of a large CSV file. I wanted to collect a particular column of that table and collect all entries categorised by a key in another column.

A simplified version of the table could look like this:

Key Value1 Interesting_Value Other_Value
foo1723.5X
bar211.75Q
foo4212.6B
baz2717.8F
bar4947.2K

I strived for something like this:

result = { 
  foo: [23.5, 12.6],
  bar: [1.75, 47.2],
  baz: [17.8],
 }

Iterating over the rows is easy, and getting to the columns is no problem either: The CSV gem is well documented and supports this easily.

A nice way to accumulate data is Enumerable#each_with_object. Since I wanted the result to be grouped by a key value, I’d pass a Hash as the initial argument.

Step 1: each_with_object({})

However, since I’ve planned to append values for changing keys, the default value needed to be an Array, not the default of nil.

Step 2: each_with_object(Hash.new([])

This, however, returns the same empty Array, when a key isn’t found, but I wanted a new empty Array:

Step 3: each_with_object(Hash.new { [] })

This executs the block every time a default values is needed (i.e. the given key isn’t yet in the Hash).

The next step is to append the value found in a row to the (potentially new and empty) Array for the given key.

I thought it would work this way:

data_table.each_with_object( Hash.new { [] }) do |row, acc|
  acc[row['Key']] << row['Interesting_Value'] 
end

But, no, the result of this code is an empty Hash! It needs to be the <<= operator to work, as shown in the snippet of a pry session:

[2] pry(main)> data_table = CSV.read 'table.csv', headers: true
=> #<CSV::Table mode:col_or_row row_count:6>
[3] pry(main)> data_table.each_with_object( Hash.new { [] }) do |row, acc|
[3] pry(main)*   acc[row['Key']] <<= row['Interesting_Value']
[3] pry(main)* end
=> {"foo"=>["23.5", "12.6"], "bar"=>["1.75", "47.2"], "baz"=>["17.8"]}

It seems to me, that the Hash lookup with the given default value [] returns an Array, and the append operator << does in fact append the passed object to that Array, but then the result of that does not end up as a (new) value fo the given Hash key. In contrast, the <<= operator does assign the result of the append operation.

Generating a Preview on LeanPub Using Rake

While working on the e-books I published on LeanPub, I have developed a number of useful approaches to get fast(er) feedback on how the book looks. Two earlier blog posts describe some of this:

While this provides a nice feedback cycle, sometimes I like to generate a new preview without pushing to the GitHub repository I am using to share the book content with LeanPub. This happens, when I change settings on the Leanpub site that affect the generation of the book (the title image, font faces and sizes are set via the book’s pages on LeanPub, not a configuration file in the repository).

While I could click thought the UI and navigate to the page where I can generate a new preview, I prefer using a command line tool from my local machine: Rake

The Setup

A warning: The LeanPub API documentation says: “Using the Leanpub API requires a Pro plan.

To use the LeanPub API, an API key is needed. The link to the API documentation above has information where to get that key. To easily use this API key, I store it in an environment variable LEANPUB_API_KEY.

The Rake Task Definition

In the repository of my book I have a Rakefile containing the task definitions. Here’s the one to trigger the generation of a preview on Leanpub:

require 'rest-client'

namespace :leanpub do
  LEANPUB_BASE_URL = "https://leanpub.com/<book_id_on_leanpub>"
  namespace :preview do
    desc "Generate new Preview on LeanPub"
    task :generate do |t|
      what_to_generate = t.name.split(':')[1]
      url = "#{LEANPUB_BASE_URL}/#{what_to_generate}.json"
      begin
        RestClient.post url, api_key: ENV['LEANPUB_API_KEY']
      rescue RestClient::Exception => e
        puts "Got error #{e.message} in", caller.first
        exit 1
      end
      puts "Generation of preview was triggered"
    end
  end
end

I can now easily generate a preview, without having to leave the IDE I’m using to write the book (or the command line) using this:

$ rake leanpub:preview:generate
Generation of preview was triggered

The Rakefile will likely change, for example to also support publishing a new version of the current ebook, or to make it more flexible in order to handle different ebooks.

Update (8. Jan 2021): It turns out that this is really useful: LeanPub provides a web hook to generate a _sub set_ of the book that also generates the PDF (but not the ebook and mobi file). This saves some time from pushing to GitHub to being able to review the generated file. I now use this web hook most of the time.

I now only generate for full book in all formats when I want to check that the book looks good enough to be published. Since this happens less regularly than pushing to the repository, I use the Rake task.

Announcement: Workshop & ebook: “Fast Feedback Using Ruby”

At the “London Tester Gathering Workshops 2015” (also see #LTGWorkshops on Twitter) I offer a workshop “Fast Feedback Loops & Fun with Ruby”. For this, I wanted to give attendees a handout, to make applying the stuff covered easier and it was planned to be a list of brief recipes.
Suffice to say that the handout grew (and it’s entirely possible that this is ‘feature creep’ in action). In fact, it grew to the point that I decided to turn it into an ebook. The book is not done yet, there’s some copy editing to do.

Fast Feedback Using Ruby

In any case: There will be an ebook, and it will be available on LeanPub at https://leanpub.com/fastfeedbackusingruby/. If you’re interested, please leave a note on the book’s pages.

London Tester Gathering Workshops 2015: “Fast Feedback Loops & Fun with Ruby”

My workshop at the London Tester Gathering Workshops 2015 is announced now! They’re offering an early bird rate until the 18th February, by the way. Find the abstract on the conference page or just read ahead. 🙂

Fast Feedback Loops & Fun with Ruby

Ruby is “a Programmer’s best friend”. Let’s use Ruby to get feedback including getting feedback automatically when working on projects. Whether it’s about transforming source code into test results (a.k.a. running automated tests) or generating image files from raw data, Ruby can be used to automate these tasks. Furthermore, it can also be used to automate actually running these tasks, e.g. upon saving a file to disk. Does that sound like a good idea? This session is for you.

I regularly bump into tasks that are…

  1. tedious, if done manually
  2. not done often enough, unless automated
  3. still not done often enough, unless running them is automated, too.

In the workshop we’ll combine some Ruby tools to remedy this situation. In particular the workshop will cover:

  1. Writing a simple Ruby program that does something useful, e.g. turn a markdown file into HTML
  2. Wrapping that in a Rake task
  3. Automate running the task

Knowing how to do this is useful, not only for projects using Ruby as their primary language, but can be handy in all projects.

What is expected:

  • Some Ruby knowledge; you don’t have to be an expert or anything like that.
  • A notebook (or tablet) with an internet connection & Ruby installed.
    Cool if you’re using RVM, rbenv, chruby or similar
  • Mac OS X, BSD; Linux & friends are fine, Windows may be a bit problematic.

 

London Tester Gathering Workshops 2015: Early News

There’s news about the London Tester Gathering Workshops 2015: I’ll offer one of the workshops!

I’m sure we’ll have a couple of exiting days talking about software testing. And not only talking but also some hands-on stuff using Ruby for fun and (fast) feedback.

Before I publish more information about my workshop, I’d like it to…

look right

Stay tuned!

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