Make error messages precise enough to help users, so that they can resolve the problem, or at least enable them to provide meaningful input when talking to support.
For a project, I was working on an application that stored it’s content as text files. Git was used as a storage backend, so the application could track who made what changes when. – So far so good. Testing this application was done on a specific test environment somewhere on the net.
While testing was possible, it was inconvenient to have to also log in the the logging server so track what exactly was happening, and updating the application itself was not as easy either. Therefore, one day I started to set up the whole thing on my local machine. The setup and configuration was surprisingly easy. We had good documentation for where to put which files. This was the easy part. I could start the application & tell it Git repository contained the application content (those text files mentioned above).
The problem occurred, when I tried to actually get the application data:
XYZ cannot access the repository!”The application’s error message as displayed to the user
That’s not particularly helpful. On order to support failure analysis, an error message shown to a user should help identifying the problem and solving it, or to have a meaningful exchange with support.
I checked the log files and quickly found some related information:
<timestamp> INFO : <class_info_and_linenumber> - SSH folder: <absolute_path_to_ssh_folder> <timestamp> DEBUG: <class_info_and_linenumber> - SSH identity file: <absolute_path_to_ssh_key_file> <timestamp> ERROR: <class_info_and_linenumber> - Exception <library_name>Exception: Invalid private key: <key_identifier> requesting Git repo <full_class_name>.<ExceptionType>: Cannot list remotes for git url <ssh_url_to_git_repository>
I found this surprising, since I was using the exact same identity files to access the very same Git repository from my IDE & other Git clients on my machine. Had something corrupted my key? If so, what was it?
I started by increasing the logging of the SSH library I’m using, to make sure I was using the exact same key pair in all situations. A good while later, after googling for the error message, talking to developers, and reading some documentation, I found out this: The library being used wasn’t coping well with the encryption algorithm I used when generating my public & private key pair.
While I used ‘ed25519‘, a (relatively) recent algorithm (at the time of writing this), the library (in the version that was used in the application) expected the key to be generated using ‘RSA‘. Some details are also in the post ‘“Invalid privatekey” when using JSch‘ on stackoverflow. The problem is the misleading error message: The key wasn’t invalid at all, since I could access the repository using it with other programs that (apparently) used other libraries. The key type was unknown to the library. That’s similar, but different.
A Better Error Message
Had the library error message been something like
Key <key_identifier> not recognised; see documentation for supported key types, identifying and solving the problem would have been much faster and less frustrating. Words matter in error messages, too.
Error Messages Should Help You Resolve the Error
I prefer error messages to be detailed enough to help me identify the real cause of the issue and ideally give a hint at what I can do.
Take widespread error messages for pass word fields for example. They may read like this:
Your password must have at leastA contrived error message, that’s entirely likely
12 characters overall
1 uppercase & 1 lowercase character
1 of these characters: # $ % & – ? = / . , ;
Yes, there’s a lot to be said about the value and limitations of requirements like these, but at least the message helps a user to set a password that complies with the mentioned rules.
A good error message can help users to identify a problem and probably resolve it as well. They don’t have to contact your support team. Your support team doesn’t have to go though the process of identifying the same problem(s) over and over. This saves time (and probably money) on both sides, yours and the user’s.
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